Energetic Calculator for Ancient Buildings - EnCAB

Algorithms by Material

Algorithms by Bibliography

Algorithms by Material

Algorithms:

Earth - Mortar - Mudbrick - Pise' - Plaster - Stone


Abrams 1994 47 1
Al Statement:Excavating earth Al Math:1 man excavated 2.6 cubic meters in 5 hours
m3 p-h
Source info:Abrams 1994, 47 Also cited in:Erasmus 1965, 47
Algorithm type:Earth Digging Position in process:Procurement
Material:Earth Source type:Ethnographic
Source chronology: Source geography:
Notes:
Notes on bibliography:original formula from Erasmus_1965_285
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Abrams_1994_47_1 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.02.2018
Input data:Abrams_1994_47_1.xml Modified by/on:


Abrams 1994 47 3
Al Statement:Transportation Al Math:Simplified formula based on ENCAFE_1957_22. Output = Q x (L/v+ L/V') x H.
Q in kg L in m V in V' in H in hr
Output in m3
Source info:Abrams 1994, 47 Also cited in:AabergBonsignore 1975, 47
Algorithm type:Transport Position in process:Transport
Material:Earth Source type:
Source chronology: Source geography:
Notes:Output = Q x (L/v+ L/V') x H. Q=quantity of earth per load (in kg), L=transport distance(in m), V=velocity loaded, V'=velocity unloaded, H=hours, Output expressed in m3.
Notes on bibliography:
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Abrams_1994_47_3 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.04.2018
Input data:Abrams_1994_47_3.xml Modified by/on:


Robson 1999 67
Al Statement:1/6 of the volume of a mudbrick wall consists of mortar Al Math:m3 * 5/6 = volume of mudbricks
wall volume in m3 mortar in m3
mudbricks in wall volume in m3
Source info:Robson 1999, 67-69 Also cited in:Heimpel 2009, 67-69
Algorithm type:Mudbrick Position in process:Construction
Material:Mortar Source type:Text
Source chronology:Bronze Age Source geography:ANE
Notes:
Notes on bibliography:
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Robson_1999_67 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.02.2018
Input data:Robson_1999_67.xml Modified by/on:


Aurenche 1981 46
Al Statement:a 40cm thick mudbrick wall holds a thermic difference for 12 hours (after which temperature on both sides are equal). Al Math:Thermic difference is reduced by 1/12 every hour for a 40cm thick mudbrick wall.
Thermic difference in Celcius hours in hr
Remaining thermic difference in Celcius
Source info:Aurenche 1981, 46 Also cited in:Doat 1979
Algorithm type:Material Qualities Position in process:Materials
Material:Mudbrick Source type:Experimental Archaeology
Source chronology:Modern Source geography:ANE
Notes:The values provided are for a set wall thickness; double or half thicknesses would not necessarily double or halve the thermic property of the material. The usefulness of this algorithm is limited, as the presence of windows, doors or the type of roofing would affect temperature to a much larger degree than the walls themselves. It is included here to show the quality of mudbricks as a building material, and may be useful in comparison with the thermic properties of other building materials.
Notes on bibliography:
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Aurenche_1981_46 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.02.2018
Input data:Aurenche_1981_46.xml Modified by/on:


Aurenche 1981 66
Al Statement:350 mudbricks can be made per person per day. Al Math:350 bricks in 1 day
day brick
Source info:Aurenche 1981, 66 Also cited in:
Algorithm type:Mudbrick Position in process:Materials
Material:Mudbrick Source type:Ethnographic
Source chronology: Source geography:ANE
Notes:
Notes on bibliography:
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Aurenche_1981_66 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.02.2018
Input data:Aurenche_1981_66.xml Modified by/on:


Buccellati 2016 108
Al Statement:1 cubic meter of new mudbrick weighs 1502 kg. Al Math:1 m3 weighs 1502 kg.
m3 kg
Source info:Buccellati 2016, 108 Also cited in:
Algorithm type:Mudbrick Position in process:Materials
Material:Mudbrick Source type:Ethnographic
Source chronology:Modern Source geography:ANE
Notes:
Notes on bibliography:
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Buccellati_2016_108 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.02.2018
Input data:Buccellati_2016_108.xml Modified by/on:


Buccellati 2016 109
Al Statement:1 cubic meter of mudbrick from excavations weighs 1392 kg. Al Math:1 m3 weighs 1392 kg.
m3 kg
Source info:Buccellati 2016, 109 Also cited in:
Algorithm type:Mudbrick Position in process:Materials
Material:Mudbrick Source type:Ethnographic
Source chronology:Bronze Age Source geography:ANE
Notes:While the chronology here is given as Bronze Age, the fact that the bricks weigh less (see Buccellati_2016_132 for a comparison with new bricks) may be due to the fact that they have been removed (thus excavated) from an archaeological context.
Notes on bibliography:
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Buccellati_2016_109 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.02.2018
Input data:Buccellati_2016_109.xml Modified by/on:


Cornerstones 2006 132
Al Statement:Chaff used for bricks 2.5-4 cm in length. Al Math:
cm cm
Source info:Cornerstones Community Partnerships Staff 2006, 132 Also cited in:
Algorithm type:Mudbrick Position in process:Materials
Material:Mudbrick Source type:Ethnographic
Source chronology: Source geography:
Notes:Chaff used for bricks 2.5-4 cm in legnth. For mortar chaff needs to be shorter, for plaster longer.
Notes on bibliography:
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Cornerstones_2006_132 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.02.2018
Input data:Cornerstones_2006_132.xml Modified by/on:


Heimpel 2009 223
Al Statement:240 mudbricks can be made per person per day. Al Math:
day brick
Source info:Heimpel 2009, 223 Also cited in:
Algorithm type:Mudbrick Position in process:Materials
Material:Mudbrick Source type:Ethnographic
Source chronology: Source geography:ANE
Notes:
Notes on bibliography:
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Heimpel_2009_223 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.02.2018
Input data:Heimpel_2009_223.xml Modified by/on:


Minke 1994 55
Al Statement:240 mudbricks can be made per person per day. Al Math:
day brick
Source info:MinkeG 1994, 55 Also cited in:
Algorithm type:Mudbrick Position in process:Materials
Material:Mudbrick Source type:Ethnographic
Source chronology: Source geography:
Notes:
Notes on bibliography:
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Minke_1994_55 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.02.2018
Input data:Minke_1994_55.xml Modified by/on:


Aurenche 1981 54
Al Statement:A pise' wall needs 3-5 days drying time for each section, which is 30-50cm in height. Al Math:
section height in cm day
Source info:Aurenche 1981, 54 Also cited in:
Algorithm type:Wall Building Position in process:Construction
Material:Pise' Source type:Experimental Archaeology
Source chronology:Modern Source geography:ANE
Notes:A middle value was used for the algorithm, 4 days drying time for 40cm wall height.
Notes on bibliography:
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Aurenche_1981_54 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.02.2018
Input data:Aurenche_1981_54.xml Modified by/on:


Abrams 1994 49 3
Al Statement:Plaster production Al Math:Time needed to produce plaster (see note)
plaster volume in m3 p-h
Source info:Abrams 1994, 49 Also cited in:
Algorithm type:Plaster Production Position in process:Procurement
Material:Plaster Source type:Ethnographic
Source chronology: Source geography:Mesoamerica
Notes:This algorithm is relatively problematic; it relates to the preparation of the plaster for use in a structure, and as such involves not only the collection of the raw material, but also the burning of that raw material as well as the collection of the material needed for the fire. Abrams states: "The manufacture of plaster involved several interrelated activities: cutting, transporting, and stacking trees as well as excavating, preparing, and transporting stone" (Abrams 1994 49). It assumes the open-air method of lime burning. Abrams states that the "figure is clearly incorrect for the Late Classic Copan since data indicate that the calcining of limestone for plaster was likely conducted within tenclosed kilns" (Abrams 1994 49-50).
Notes on bibliography:
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Abrams_1994_49_3 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.02.2018
Input data:Abrams_1994_49_3.xml Modified by/on:


Cornerstones 2006 133
Al Statement:Production of lime requires a heat source of 900 Celcius for 36 hours. Al Math:Lime requires heat of 900 Celcius
Source info:Cornerstones Community Partnerships Staff 2006, 133 Also cited in:
Algorithm type:Plaster Production Position in process:Materials
Material:Plaster Source type:Ethnographic
Source chronology: Source geography:
Notes:See Cornerstones Community Partnerships 2006 p.132 for gypsum as a parallel.
Notes on bibliography:
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Cornerstones_2006_133 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.02.2018
Input data:Cornerstones_2006_133.xml Modified by/on:


Wulff 1966 126
Al Statement:Production of gypsum requires a heat source of 100-200 Celcius. Al Math:Gypsum requires heat of 100-200 Celcius
Source info:Wulff 1966, 126 Also cited in:
Algorithm type:Plaster Production Position in process:Materials
Material:Plaster Source type:Ethnographic
Source chronology: Source geography:
Notes:Average of 150 used.
Notes on bibliography:
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Wulff_1966_126 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.02.2018
Input data:Wulff_1966_126.xml Modified by/on:


Abrams 1994 45 1
Al Statement:Stone quarrying using stone tools Al Math:1 p-h to quarry 200kg unworked stone with stone tools
p-h kg
Source info:Abrams 1994, 45 Also cited in:
Algorithm type:Quarrying Tuff Position in process:Procurement
Material:Stone Source type:Ethnographic
Source chronology: Source geography:Mesoamerica
Notes:Figure based on experiment over 5 hour workday. Figure adjusted for stone tools by author.
Notes on bibliography:
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Abrams_1994_45_1 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.02.2018
Input data:Abrams_1994_45_1.xml Modified by/on:


Abrams 1994 45 2
Al Statement:Stone quarrying using stone tools Al Math:1 p-h to quarry 102kg unworked stone with stone tools
p-h kg
Source info:Abrams 1994, 45 Also cited in:
Algorithm type:Quarrying Tuff Position in process:Procurement
Material:Stone Source type:Ethnographic
Source chronology: Source geography:Mesoamerica
Notes:Figure based on interview with quarry supervisor.
Notes on bibliography:
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Abrams_1994_45_2 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.02.2018
Input data:Abrams_1994_45_2.xml Modified by/on:


Abrams 1994 46 1
Al Statement:Amount of wastage when making masonry blocks Al Math:Amount of wastage when making masonry blocks from rough stone: 45% (v1 is original amount of rough stone, v2 is finished masonry blocks)
kg kg
Source info:Abrams 1994, 46 Also cited in:
Algorithm type:Quarrying Tuff Position in process:Procurement
Material:Stone Source type:Ethnographic
Source chronology: Source geography:Mesoamerica
Notes:
Notes on bibliography:
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Abrams_1994_46_1 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.02.2018
Input data:Abrams_1994_46_1.xml Modified by/on:


Abrams 1994 46 2
Al Statement:Collecting cobbles Al Math:collecting cobbles from a natural accumulation (900kg x p-h)
kg p-h
Source info:Abrams 1994, 46 Also cited in:
Algorithm type:Quarrying Cobbles Position in process:Procurement
Material:Stone Source type:Ethnographic
Source chronology: Source geography:Mesoamerica
Notes:Collection experiment along Copan River.
Notes on bibliography:
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Abrams_1994_46_2 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.02.2018
Input data:Abrams_1994_46_2.xml Modified by/on:


Abrams 1994 46 3
Al Statement:Calculating tuff weight by volume Al Math:Tuff weight by volume
m3 kg
Source info:Abrams 1994, 46 Also cited in:
Algorithm type:Material Qualities Position in process:Materials
Material:Stone Source type:Ethnographic
Source chronology: Source geography:Mesoamerica
Notes:Tuff block weight in Copan River area.
Notes on bibliography:
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Abrams_1994_46_3 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.02.2018
Input data:Abrams_1994_46_3.xml Modified by/on:


Abrams 1994 47 2
Al Statement:Percentage of cobbles in fill Al Math:Cobble fill contains 1:2 cobbles to earth (v1 is cobbles, v2 earth)
m3 m3
Source info:Abrams 1994, 47 Also cited in:
Algorithm type:Building Cobbles Position in process:Construction
Material:Stone Source type:Ethnographic
Source chronology: Source geography:Mesoamerica
Notes:Range varies widely, Abrams gives an average but cites two examples where cobbles are 47% and 24%.
Notes on bibliography:
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Abrams_1994_47_2 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.02.2018
Input data:Abrams_1994_47_2.xml Modified by/on:


Abrams 1994 48 1
Al Statement:Stone vs. steel tools Al Math:Stone tools require 50% more time vs. steel tools .
p-h p-h
Source info:Abrams 1994, 48 Also cited in:
Algorithm type:Tools Position in process:Tools
Material:Stone Source type:Ethnographic
Source chronology: Source geography:Mesoamerica
Notes:Based on experimentation in Copan River area.
Notes on bibliography:
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Abrams_1994_48_1 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.02.2018
Input data:Abrams_1994_48_1.xml Modified by/on:


Abrams 1994 48 2
Al Statement:Working tuff blocks Al Math:Facing tuff into masonry blocks: 1 m3 in 11.6 p-d
m3 p-h
Source info:Abrams 1994, 48 Also cited in:
Algorithm type:Cut Masonry Blocks Position in process:Procurement
Material:Stone Source type:Ethnographic
Source chronology: Source geography:Mesoamerica
Notes:Based on experimentation in Copan River area, using stone tools. Algorithm is given as taking 11.6 p-d, I assume 5 p-h = 1 p-d as per other examples in the same chapter.
Notes on bibliography:
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Abrams_1994_48_2 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.02.2018
Input data:Abrams_1994_48_2.xml Modified by/on:


Abrams 1994 48 3
Al Statement:Facing cobbles Al Math:Facing cobbles: 1 m3 in 1.16 p-d
m3 p-h
Source info:Abrams 1994, 48 Also cited in:
Algorithm type:Cut Masonry Blocks Position in process:Procurement
Material:Stone Source type:Ethnographic
Source chronology: Source geography:Mesoamerica
Notes:Based on experimentation in Copan River area, using stone tools. Algorithm is given as taking 1.16 p-d, I assume 5 p-h = 1 p-d as per other examples in the same chapter.
Notes on bibliography:
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Abrams_1994_48_3 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.02.2018
Input data:Abrams_1994_48_3.xml Modified by/on:


Abrams 1994 49 1
Al Statement:Sculpting stone (simple) Al Math:Scultor carving simple motifs onto stone (measured in carved surface area)
cm2 p-h
Source info:Abrams 1994, 49 Also cited in:Abrams 1984
Algorithm type:Sculpturing Position in process:Manufacture
Material:Stone Source type:Ethnographic
Source chronology: Source geography:Mesoamerica
Notes:
Notes on bibliography:See also Abrams_1994_44. bi - Abrams 1984 given as Abrams 1984b in Abrams 1994.
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Abrams_1994_49_1 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.02.2018
Input data:Abrams_1994_49_1.xml Modified by/on:


Abrams 1994 49 2
Al Statement:Sculpting stone (complex) Al Math:Scultor carving complex motifs onto stone (measured in carved surface area)
cm2 p-h
Source info:Abrams 1994, 49 Also cited in:Abrams 1984
Algorithm type:Sculpturing Position in process:Manufacture
Material:Stone Source type:Ethnographic
Source chronology: Source geography:Mesoamerica
Notes:
Notes on bibliography:See also Abrams_1994_44. bi - Abrams 1984 given as Abrams 1984b in Abrams 1994.
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Abrams_1994_49_2 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.02.2018
Input data:Abrams_1994_49_2.xml Modified by/on:


Garner 1984 5
Al Statement:A single worker constructing a stone wall will average 4.9-5.5 meters a day. Al Math:8 p-h to construct 5.2 m of free-standing wall with a height of 1.5m.
p-h m
Source info:Garner 1984, 5 Also cited in:
Algorithm type:Wall Building Position in process:Construction
Material:Stone Source type:Ethnographic
Source chronology:Modern Source geography:Europe
Notes:The values in this algorithm are a bit unclear - first, the number of hours in a work day is not stated, and then the width of the wall is also not known. The wall being built is free standing, and thus tapers towards the top, which would not be the case in the construction of a building.
Notes on bibliography:
How to cite:EnCAB alg. - Garner_1984_5 Created by/on:Buccellati F., 30.02.2018
Input data:Garner_1984_5.xml Modified by/on: